Saturday, December 12, 2009

Winter Setting In

The Christmas season is upon us. Winter is setting in and it has started to be cold enough to shift from the light jacket and sweater I usually wear in the Fall to the heavy coat and sweater I wear when Winter really sets in. I suppose formally I have another week or so to wait.

Summer was disappointing on the tomato front. Had a fair number of tomatoes but even the best producers didn't produce anything like I'm used to from my NFT systems. So the next question is whether I can come up with a nice little NFT system that doesn't require a lot of busy work?

The systems that use 10' long sections of PVC pipe are big and a bit cumbersome in the space they take. I'd like to come up with something smaller but still productive. Maybe a small system made from shorter runs. I was thinking that a diamond shaped system might be just the ticket. It might even be mounted on the tank or over the tank. Maybe support eight plants.

The system would be strong and fairly self-contained. I could feed from one corner and deliver back to the tank from the opposite diagonal corner. Needs more thought of course, but looks like it might be fun.

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Hydroponics In Space

SEE HERE For long term habitation in space it will be essential to grow your own food and recycle just about everything, especially water. The sheer difficulty of creating a closed cycle system will I think deter long term habitats in space until the technology can be perfected. Hydroponics is likely to be an important part of the ecology of a long term space colony. One would expect that such a colony's eco-system would be quite fragile. A significant blight would destroy the harvest and likely disrupt the ability of the habitat to exist. Don't expect to see long duration space travel until these kinds of problems are solved.

Tuesday, October 13, 2009

Need a Scale

I like to keep track of my tomatoes and my diet, so I use one of these attractive and relatively inexpensive kitchen scales which use piezo-electric crystal stress sensors to make their determination of weight. I'm really impressed with them since the two I have are so reliable and consistent. You can take the thing you are weighing off and on and it always reads the same which is one of the marks of a good measurement system.

I use the scales to weigh both tomatoes and food. I'm on a diet that is really fairly simple — shift food intake from 100 calorie per ounce food to 5 calorie per ounce food and eat all you want. I've dropped 45 pounds since May which isn't too bad. I started at 272 and I was 227 this morning. My long term goal is 170 so I still have a long way to go. If anyone is interested I'll say more.

The tomato is a perfect fit into this diet since tomatoes are nominally five calories per ounce. I let the food consumption range up to about 20 calories per ounce (grapes) before I get a little stingy with myself. You need a handy little digital scale if you're going to do this kind of diet since you have to measure how much things weigh or guess, but measuring is better.

I exchanged links with Joseph Wright at so you'd have an easy link to go look at these interesting little scales. The growing season is about done and now it's into the eating of the last red ones and the waiting for the green ones to turn read or enter the fried green tomatoes experiment.

Sunday, October 11, 2009

The Last Hurrah ...

This is what the tomatoes on the deck looked like a couple of days ago as October weather slowly turned from mild to colder. We have not had the frost yet that will terminate the growing season but the tomato plants are all but dormant in the cool days and colder nights.

It seems time for a recap. Summer 2009 was not a good experience. The total yield was a meager 189 tomatoes (sounds like a lot but most were cherries or small varieties. The total weight from the plants was only 518.75 ounces. That doesn't count the many green tomatoes which are still on the vines, but it is the ones that ripened and are being consumed by the Lord and Lady of the manor.

The summary is: 1) the wick systems started off well but hit a brick wall composed of disease and sudden failure to draw nutrient. A variety of factors may be implicated and I'm not sure of the relative likelihood of any of them. 1.1) system may have become so nutrient imbalanced that it the plants could not continue to proper. I don't have any way to determine that. The total nutrient conductivity was in the 20-24 cf range which is fine. 1.2) lack of oxygenation ... I didn't oxygenate the wick systems. The early prospering however makes me think that may not be the reason. 1.3) a good fraction of the plants expressed relatively severe plant diseases, but some seemed rather resistant, so that is also a factor.

My rule of thumb for plants is about 10 pounds of tomatoes per plant and with only 32 pounds of tomatoes from quite a large number of plants this season was a disaster. The system that did best was the deck system which was just potting soil planters which were watered and occasionally fertilized with mostly Miracle Grow which one of my correspondents pointed out is not a hydroponic nutrient, but then these pot systems were not hydroponic. The second set of plants were just set into Virginia clay otherwise they did fairly well, but also had disease problems. The deck system has some disease problems as well.

On the whole this was a season that was severely limited by plant disease. In fact I've never seen some of the problems with tomato plants that I saw this year. I'm going to look through some of the sites which have pictures of various tomatoe blights and diseases and see if I can classify some of the problems I had.

I enjoy even the bad years because I learn a lot. What I mostly learned this year is to go back to NFT next year, even if the system is only a small one. These systems were low yielding and just as much trouble as the NFT systems have ever been.

Saturday, September 26, 2009

Stewardship: You Get Out What You Put In

"I think I'll go out and water the tomatoes" I said to Jessica thinking that I had not watered the tomatoes growing on the deck and on the side of the house. It had been at least a week since I'd even thought about the tomatoes languishing and dying in the neglected wick systems in the back yard. "Aren't you going to pick those red tomatoes?" Jessica asks, and "It's raining and they're being flooded back there."

I wasn't even sure what she was talking about since I had abandoned the wick system in my mind since the other two systems were doing so much better. There were tons of tomatoes in the three pots on the deck and quite a few, though smaller for the most part (cultivars) on the four tomato plants by the side of the yard. But I said, "Sure I'll go out and look and bring back any red ones."

In the back yard the wick system looked run down and the plants mostly dead or dying straggly, but the tomatoes on them had ripened and I picked ten and brought them in. They were mostly small donas which are a tomato I really like although Jessica thinks they are way too small. But they are very round, very red, and very tasty. I put the ten on my digital kitchen scale where I weigh all my tomatoes. They weighed in at 1# 1oz — 17 ounces total.

I took out my pocket notebook and made a note. That brought the total of the Late Start Systems to 114 tomatoes with a weight of 204.125 ounces, an average of less that two ounces each although there were some tomatoes that had come in at around 13 ounces it wasn't very many. And this is the total as of September 27th — It won't be too long now before the cold weather sets in. So starting late has been not too smart. I have to get a picture of the many many tomatoes on the plants in the deck pots. They are the most luxurious growth this year.

Live and learn really. You get out of things what you put into them. My motivation for the wick systems was to try for a system I didn't have to maintain too much. It worked for a while, but I think the lack of oxygenation probably was a mistake. Still I didn't want to aerate the water or use electrical devices.

I saw a system that was being used in Africa to help people grow hydroponically and they did their aeration by physical shaking the float system making the water splash. They did that for hours a day. That's hard. I suppose I shouldn't complain about what happened when I chose to do nothing. I didn't run out my aquarium air pump and pump tiny bubbles into the water. I just let things sit. I'll have to think of some other recipe for the passive system. Wick systems without oxygenation seem to be a bit of a dead end. Of course it could have been something else. The plants did end up with some plant diseases so I suppose I should do some research in that direction too.

For all the soul searching, the kitchen counter is full of tomatoes. Jessica and I don't need nearly as many tomatoes as we get, although this year with the late start we've not been getting anything like past seasons. Later on I'll put up a contrast between this year and years past with earlier starts.

Saturday, September 12, 2009

Tomato Anxiety

Well the Summer is mostly done and my very late start certainly has compromised my harvest, but since I don't do this just to get tomatoes but also to acquire knowledge it has been helpful. The current status of the systems is:
  • Wick Systems: pretty much a disaster, whether for lack of attention or disease or failure to aerate the systems or possibly failure to cycle the nutrient and rebalance. I intentionally did almost nothing and the result is that most of the plants contracted some kind of disease and seem to have largely died. Oddly, several are still healthy enough to maintain their leaves and have lots of green tomatoes on them, so I'm still maintaining the nutrient strength.
  • House Systems: the systems on the side of the house (4 plants with cut out plastic cups at the base for watering in a typical Virginia clay soil, really poor soil. ) Some Miracle Gro applied randomly, not systematic at all. Two of the four plants have some sort of disease, but all have significant numbers of fruit set and developing. Because of the disease some of the fruit is a little surface spotted.
  • Deck Systems: the deck systems are three pots and of the three systems these are flourishing the best. One of the plants has some minor disease, all have significant amounts of fruit set. They have been randomly fertilized with Miracle Gro as well.
Total Harvest: Because of the late start tomatoes have only been coming off the plants sporadically. The very first came off on August 29th and 30th -- a single 1 3/4 oz tomato from the house sytem was harvested and the next day 3 1 oz. tomatoes came off the wick system. Many of the plants are cherries or other smaller tomatoes like donas. Today a total of 43 tomatoes but only 56 5/8 oz. total have come off the systems. That's only about 3.5 pounds, so not much so far, especially given the number of plants.

I'll be tracking this until the end of the growing season which will probably come sometime in October. The late start from seed, May 21st — has compromised the yield and I'd say right now that the wick systems have been a failure despite a very promising start. So it's back to the drawing board there. I'd like to find a system that doesn't require electricity or a lot of monitoring. The wick systems have filled both those requirements for the most part, but after all the purpose is to grow tomaotes and will I've taken quite a few off the wick system so far (34 of the 43 taken so far came from the wick system, they've all been pretty small). The biggest tomatoes have come off the deck system: one at 6 7/8 oz. and two at slightly over 10 oz (one 10 3/8 and the other at 10 1/8 oz.).

We'll see how things develop in the weeks to come. Historically using NFT systems I've gotten a lot more tomatoes but you can't really assess things until you're further into the harvest season.

Monday, August 17, 2009

How Does This Work?

I just reviewed some of the past posts and picked up the fact that some remarks had been left. Sorry I didn't pick up on that earlier and respond. I thought I'd comment on how keeping the plants going is working. Right now the main thing I have to do is keep all the plants in water. Tomato plants transpire (something like perspire) a large amount of water. I've been distributing three gallons of water twice a day among seven plants (four on the side of the house in rather poor clay soil, and three in potting soil in pots on the side deck).

There are fifteen tomato plants in the back yard, five per plastic tub, each tub holding about eight gallons of water. These plants are transpiring around a gallon to one and a half gallons per day. Because the roots extend rather far into the nutrient the tubs can go for several days without being topped off. On hot days the plants tend to transpire more water than nutrient so that the concentration of nutrient actually increases as the water is transpired. I top those tubs off just by putting a hose into the tubs for a short while to replace the water. Then I check the nutrient concentration. A rule of thumb for my nutrient (Total Grow's Steiner) is that an ounce of concentrate will take the Conductivity Factor up about 2 units and I'm running the system at a total CF of 22 to 24.

The wick systems have been left alone for three days and only gone down around two or three gallons. That will increase as the plants continue to grow. I like the passive character of the wick systems although frankly the plants grow somewhat better in NFT systems. NFT systems though require pumps and continuous flow. If the pumps fail or you don't keep the nutrient tank full your system can get into trouble rather quickly. Four or five hours with the pumps down will likely kill most fo the plants, especially on a hot day. So NFT systems require a lot more monitoring. I'm looking forward to tomatoes turning red soon so I can harvest some.

Sunday, August 16, 2009

Tomatoes They Are A'Growin

Here's a mix of what the tomatoes that are a'growing look like. There are about six or so varieties out there and I don't know whether I got pictures of any substantial variety of the varieties. But as you can see, there are quite a few green tomatoes on their way to becoming something more. All my neighbors who got their tomatoes going before mine are crowing about how much further along theirs are than mine are — but I think I have more per plant or maybe that is just wishful thinking. Some of the ones on the deck are showing signs of starting to turn red and that's encouraging. In the upper right panel there are a few of the banana shaped tomatoes that are supposed to end up yellow. I'm really curious about them. It's always such fun as the tomatoes start turning and more and more start growing. I'll keep you posted!

Thursday, July 30, 2009

What It Looks Like Today: July 30, 2009

Click on the Image for a Larger View
Here we are July 30, 2009 and we've got blossoms and some tiny tomatoes developing. Of course that's what you expect when you started late from seeds on May 21. The rundown of the systems are 1) Deck system in pots with potting soil being fed Miracle Gro -- three plants doing very well, 2) four plants in rather bad clay soil with plastic cups with the bottom cut out so they can be watered and being fed Miracle Gro, and 3) three tubs, each with five plants creating a jungle on an elevated platform in the back yard. These are all hydroponic wick systems, also doing well but pretty much unsupported so just sprawling all over the place. There are a bunch of other tomato plants in pots on one side of the platform on the ground which are the overflow plants that I didn't have the heart to just throw away -- so they're doing their best in pots with just potting soil and water. I may give them some Miracle Gro too.

The nutrient strength in the wick systems is 20-24 CF measured with a Dipstick meter. I took a couple pictures of roots as they grow out of the bottom of the cups down into the nutrient solution so you have an idea of how that works. About all I have to do is go out, water, check the nutrient strength and add a little concentrate to bring it up to the target nutrient concentration. I do that every couple of days. When the tomatoes start getting bigger I'll take some more pictures. The next interesting part is harvesting tomatoes and measuring them. I have this great little electronic scale that reads out very accurately, which I use to make all kinds of weight measurements.

Tuesday, July 7, 2009

Status Report

Well it's July 7th and I'll just make this a short status update. The three plants in pots on the side deck are doing great. Jessica and I added a third tub to the frame that is sitting on sawhorses in the back yard. I still have a ton of tomato plants just growing in rockwool in an aluminum throwaway cake tin. I keep adding nutrient since as long as they're happy I might use them for something. Along one side of the yard we planted four of the tomato plants in dirt. So now we have fifteen tomato plants in wick system tubs. Three in pots with potting soil that was just laying around on the side deck and four along one side of the house in rather poor clay soil but with some added mulch. I'll add photos when I'm feeling like taking the pictures. Right now they are all small since I didn't start the plants until around May 21st which is very late.

Thursday, July 2, 2009

Transfer Time: Wick and Pot

Sooner or later you have to move the babies into the real world, or at least as much of the real world as you're going to expose them to. In this case I decided to try to do wick systems as the primary hydroponics system and use some plain old potting soil pots for a control and back up system. The problem is that I had surgery on June 17th and I'm just not up to a lot of construction. So here is a sort of status update. I actually have three tubs and each cover has five holes in it. There are plastic cups in each hole with slots cut on two sides with a strip of material threaded through (actually a tee shirt cut into strips about 3/4" by 18" or so, one strip threaded through the cup with a little rockwool in the bottom. The plants were in mesh pots in other little plastic cups and now I just transfered the mesh pots with the developing tomato plant into the cups with the wicks.
Each tub holds about 8 to 10 gallons of nutrient and right now I have the nutrient conductivity factor at CF=19, which is just fine at this stage. I may ramp it up a little later. I'm not trying to oxygenate the tubs so we'll see what problems that poses. Also I'm counting on the roots following the wicks down into the tank. This should be pretty low maintenance as systems go with only an occasional ramp up of the water and addition of nutrient to bring it up to the conductivity factor I want.
The back up is three rather ordinary pots with one plant each. These are in a potting soil mix that came with a system I bought a couple of years ago, nothing very special. I'm running these for comparison and because Jessica says we must get tomatoes this year, so if I blow it with the wick systems at least this will fill the "must get tomatoes" imperative. I'll clue you in on how it's going in a while.

Sunday, June 14, 2009

Getting on with getting on ...

These little tomato plants have been doing a yeoman job of growing and now are threatening to get everything intertwined, leaves, roots, everything. So it's time to do something. I have these little netpots and I put them in dixie cups and separated a bunch of the plants ... so far seventeen and I carefully marked each dixie cup with where it came from in the matrix so I can identify what kind of tomato plant it is.
Just to keep busy I made a gallon of blue and a gallon of white nutrient concentrate. I do that by measuring a pound of the blue mix and dissolving it in a gallon of water. Then I measured a pound of the white mix and dissolved that in a gallon of water. To make a working solution I take a gallon of water and add an ounce of each of the blue and white mix (I don't mix them together at the concentrate level because that would cause precipitation of some of the nutrients). My working solution is then at a CF of about 24-26 which is full strength for tomatoes, although you can run them hotter than that up to maybe 32. Some people like to do that.
The other thing I did was change the batteries in my old reliable conductivity meter. It's about ten or eleven years old and this is only the third set of batteries. It's an early model Dip Stick (TM) made in New Zealand and when I bought it, it was marketed by American Agriculture of Portland, Oregon. I love it. It is auto on/off, doesn't require calibration and is temperature compensated. It is an all around great conductivity meter.
I'm still not sure how I'm going to deploy these plants when they get a little bigger. I was wandering around Lowes today looking at their plastic stuff and I just have not seen any containers that I really like. I've seen some I could press into service with a little work, but I'm really lazy when it comes to making systems. When you have to drill too many holes it starts feeling too much like work. I got into hydroponics to avoid work. I'll let you know when I figure it out.

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Germination Map

OK here's the cells that germinated marked in green. You can find the legend on May 21st. The surprising thing to me is how many of the 2005 seeds germinated and in general how well the Dona seeds did compared to the others. The Peppers were really disappointing, but then they were both either old seeds or harvested from commercial peppers and I don't know if I can expect those to germinate or not.

Monday, June 1, 2009

At Ten Days the babies are making progress

Well here we are ten days in and most of the tomatoes have started growing. The pepper seeds don't appear to have gotten the idea. Even the old tomato seeds have germinated which is encouraging.
The tin has been "watered" with 1/4 strength nutrient. Today I upped the added nutrient strength to 1/2 strength. The container is sitting on a shaded side deck inside a screened room so it hasn't been exposed to direct sunlight.
I still haven't really started putting the systems together. Just lazy I guess. I did do an inventory in the shed to see what I had. I have quite a few fairly shallow containers which I can lean up and use as the basic systems. Still planning to do passive systems. Should be fun.

Monday, May 25, 2009

Baby Tomatoes in Rockwool

Four days and counting and the little baby tomato plants start popping out of their seeds and stick up their baby cotyledon" leaves. These will be followed after a while by the true leaves. But it's always great to see the little ones pop out of their seeds and get started.
I've mixed up a gallon of normal strength nutrient but I typically cut it 4:1 with water when I'm first starting. I don't want to hit the little baby tomato plants with too much nutrient strength.

Thursday, May 21, 2009

Finally Getting Around To It

Procrastination is the name of the game. I am only now finally getting around to seeding my tomato plants. Yeah, yeah, yeah ... I know I should have done it at the end of last month or maybe even earlier. Better late than never. Now I have to get going. Here's what I seeded in a matrix of 11 rows and 8 columns. We'll see what comes up.

My procedure is to take a sheet of small rockwook cubes. I use really small ones if I can, about 3/4 inch on a side and about 1 1/2 inches tall. They come in a sheet. I then saturate the sheet with them all together in fresh water and then put seeds into the individual cubes. At this point I don't use any nutrient but I put the rockwool sheet in an aluminum pan (one of those disposable kind of pans they sell to cook brownies in at the store) and flood the pan with some dilute nutrient so that some nutrition, but not at high levels, wicks up through the rockwool to the plants.
There are a couple of rows in there that are there just for curiosity. Row 1 has five French Dona seeds from 2005 to see if they will germinate. Maybe not, but you never know. Row 3 is a row of old pepper seeds that I think I harvested from some jalapenos I grew a couple of years ago. I just found them in the basement so I thought I'd take a chance. Then Row 4 is a row of seeds harvested some unknown time ago from green peppers bought at the store. Probably none of these will germinate, but then I'll know.
I'm thinking about doing a germination experiment just for the fun of it because I never throw out the seeds I don't use, so I have seeds going back a number of years, often of the same varieties. Science is fun!

Wednesday, May 13, 2009

Time to get going ...

Well I've been sitting around doing not much for a while now so far as hydroponics is concerned. But now that exams are finished, grades are in, and all the 2009 graduates march on Sunday at the college I teach at, I'm quickly running out of excuses not to get to work on my hydroponics system for the Summer.
I've mentioned that it's going to be a passive system, probably several passive systems so I can compare them to see how relatively effective they are. I'm planning to do maybe 1) a smart valve system, 2) a wick system, 3) some kind of float system and put pretty much the same plant varieties in each. That way I'll be able to compare the system effectiveness. I was also thinking about doing some nutrient experiments.
Some years ago when there was a pretty active hydroponics listserv on the web, there was a fellow in California I think who was always trying to grow hydroponically with a mixture of Miracle Grow and Epson Salts. I thought it might be fun to experiment with that as a nutrient system too, just for the fun of it. Generally though I've been really happy with TotalGro's Steiner mix. I think I talked about that in an earlier post.
The last day to expect frost here in the Shenandoah Valley is May 17th which just happens to be the day our new graduates walk. So I'm expecting to get really serious next week.

Saturday, March 14, 2009

Nutrient Issues

The one nutrient issue that I've run into in my ten some years growing hydroponically is the concentration issue. You can't have a liquid concentrate of hydroponic nutrient solution that delivers all the nutrients you need (at least none of the systems I've tried works as a single concentrate). The reason is that in concentrations some of the non-organic ionic compounds will change their loyalty and chemically reaction with other ions to precipitate out some of the important nutrients. This is undoubtedly a complex concentration related and perhaps pH related process as well, but take my word for it.
The result is that if you get nutrients in concentrated form but multiple solutions, there's a reason. Don't mix them in concentrated form. Instead add them separately to your diluted nutrient solution so you don't precipitate out any of the ionic compounds.
This also applies to single nutrient concentrates delivered in powered form. If you try to make life simpler by mixing them up in a concentrate they will precipitate out some of the nutrients and you'll end up with nutrient deficiencies. I know. It happened to me and I didn't realize what had happened until I read the fine print. Of course the fact that my plants were all deformed was a clue.

Saturday, March 7, 2009

Warmth ...

It was actually warm today. I guess the Winter will be over soon. That usually means it is time to really start getting serious about this hydroponics thing. I was down in the basement today looking at rockwool cubes. I usually start my plants in 1" rockwool cubes with some dilute nutrient. There isn't much point in getting them started too early since then they just get large and unruly and if you don't have a place for them they end up all snarled and tangled together and you have a devil's own time getting them separated. So I'm not starting any seeds just yet. I'll probably wait until April sometime, maybe towards the end. Our last day for a freeze/frost in Harrisonburg is about May 17th ... although even then I've had some close calls. One year I pushed the season a day or two and ended up with most of my plants frozen and the nutrient feed tubes had frozen and I pumped all the nutrient out of the tank onto the ground. Bad day in Black Rock! So that has discouraged me from pushing the date too much.

This year there is a bit more to think about since I don't have a complete design for a series of passive systems. I'm not too concerned since some will be really easy (wick systems are that way) but some of the smart valve and modified float valve systems I'm thinking of still have some design time and some fabrication. That can probably wait until early May when I finish up at the college. As the Spring gets closer, the anticipation gets higher. I really love this hobby!

Friday, February 6, 2009


Something about getting seeds in the mail in the middle of Winter when it is freezing cold makes Spring seem all that much closer. I now have about eight or nine tomato varieties to pick from and that becomes sort of the basis for targeting the system design.

Seeds are a wonder anyway. I always enjoy getting them started a little early. A few years ago I started growing my seedlings indoors under a GH lamp starting around late April to put out after the chance of frost had ended. Here in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, that's around May 16th. In the meantime I'm daydreaming about what the coming system will be like.

Friday, January 23, 2009

Hydroponics as a Spiritual Experience

I got started working on hydroponics because I didn't like digging and weeding. Besides that I'm a techie and we like to make measurements, build things, and just figure out how things work. It's a lot of fun. Hydroponics was a natural. So when I started fooling around with it now about thirteen years ago it was a never stopping kick, each different system, each different plant or instrument was a different adventure.

Now I think all work is fundamentally spiritual. We are creative beings and we imitate our creator as Tolkien pointed out with our ability to subcreate. We can't create from nothing as God can, but we can create marvelous things by manipulating the elements of God's creation that He has made available to us.

But there's another dimension beyond our own subcreation and that is the reflection on close inspection of God's own creation. St. Paul says in Romans 1:20 "For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; ..."

As one tends one's hydroponics system the wonder of plant growth is a constant revelation. I encountered a picture on the internet of dew drops on leaves of grass and I've added a picture of just one drop of dew here. The wonder is everywhere and it fills up one's spirit.

Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Passing of a Giant

Yesterday I got a painful email telling me that The Growing Edge had published its last issue. It was to be no more. I am very disheartened to see such a high quality magazine in an industry that I love pass from the scene. I have written a lot of articles for The Growing Edge, some about the wonderful people I've met through hydroponics but most about my Summer adventures as I experimented with hydroponics system configurations and grew a lot of tomatoes, peppers, and cucumbers, as well as basil, lettuce and miscellaneous larks like a bit of corn, some egg plants and some squash. With enough attention you can grow anything in hydroponics.

The Growing Edge will be missed because it was the best magazine in the industry. It was a great run and I love the folks who made it possible down through the years I was associated with them. Good luck all!